The University Journal of Management and commerce provides a forum for in-depth analysis of commerce, managerial, and commercial transformation taking place today in the developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America.

Aims and Scope

The World University Journal of Management and Economics (WUJME) provides a forum for in-depth analysis of economic, managerial, and commercial transformation taking place today in the developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. With the objective to focus on high quality research in Economics and Management with a strong theoretical and empirical foundation, the Journal also attempts to raise issues that propagate inclusive growth, better institutions, good governance (i.e., participation, accountability and transparency), and equity.
WUJME is a bi-annual journal dedicated to publishing high-quality papers that describe the most significant and cutting-edge research in all areas of Economics, Commerce, and Management. The focus is on non-traditional core concepts and issues. The journal strives to touch broad range of inter-disciplinary research by linking the different areas of Economics, Commerce, and Management.  In addition to research articles, WUJME also publishes review articles, book reviews, and case-studies. In this way, the journal aims to be the voice of the social scientists worldwide. The journal aims to offer authors high visibility for their papers, access to a broad readership, high standards of copy editing and production, rapid publication and independence from academic societies and others with vested interests.

Patron and Editor-in-Chief

Dr. Gurmohan Singh Walia
Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University Fatehgarh Sahib     

Dr. Kanawaljeet Singh
Dean Academic Affairs
Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University
Fatehgarh Sahib    

Dr. B.S. Bhatia
Professor of Eminence and Dean Research
Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University
Fatehgarh Sahib

Associate Editors

1.    Dr. Sumit Kumar

Assistant Professor
School of Economics
Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University
Fatehgarh Sahib
2.    Dr. Harshvineet Kaur
Assistant Professor
School of Commerce and Management
Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University
Fatehgarh Sahib


WUJME is a 'double - blind peer reviewed' refereed journal. It welcomes original dissertations from academicians, researchers, and practitioners of social sciences. The aim of the Journal is to provide a scholastic platform to professionals, researchers, and academicians all over the world. It also aims to promote interdisciplinary studies over the issues of theoretical, practical, and historical importance in dealing with problems of society and disseminate papers that have practical implications for public policy, business policy, or individual decision making.

1) The Manuscripts should be in MS-Word format. Manuscripts must be 1.5 spaced, with 1-inch margins with “Times New Roman, Font Size 12, black”.
2) Two or more referees review all contributions by following the double blind system. The review process takes three months and the status would be known after three months of submission of the article. It is mandatory to mention a valid email address with content submitted online. We will acknowledge the receipt of your paper by email and an article id will be issued to the corresponding author. Manuscripts will be acknowledged within one week of receipt. The author(s) should keep in mind that it would be mandatory to cite this id while sending a query about the paper submitted online.
3) In the first page of the paper (cover page), please provide full names (first, middle and last names) and full addresses (institute's address along with designation and correspondence address) along with email address of the author(s).The author's name or affiliations should not appear anywhere else in the body of the manuscript, because our peer-review process is blinded.
4) The actual paper should commence from the second page containing the title followed by the abstract, keywords, and the main paper. The author's name should not be mentioned anywhere except in the first page (cover page).
5) The Manuscripts should not be more than 6000 words. The manuscript should mention the time period in which the research was conducted.
6) The abstract, followed by relevant keywords should not be more than 250 words and should adequately describe the work and highlight its significance. The abstract should only include text. Avoid the use of abbreviations and references in the abstract.
7) Every manuscript should be labeled as being:
 a) A Research Paper/article
b) A Review Paper
c) A Case Study
d) A Book Review
8) Tables should be numbered consecutively. The title of the table should be placed above the table. The source should be indicated at the bottom. Please provide table(s) as real table(s) with rows, columns and cells. Each piece of information should reside in its own cell.
9) Figures should be numbered consecutively. The source should be indicated at the bottom. The figures should also be given relevant titles.
10) All tables, charts, graphs, diagrams should be black and not in color. The images should be of high resolution and in black and white only. Number and complexity of such exhibits should be as low as possible. All charts and graphs should be drawn legibly.
11) References should be included at the end of the paper. All the references should be cited in the body of the text. References and citations should be complete in all respects and arranged in alphabetical order.
12) Display formulae and mathematical equations should be numbered serially. Equations should be typewritten and use the form (1).
13) Footnotes, italics, and quotation marks should be kept to the minimum.
14) The primary heading should be in capitalized form (Uppercase), and boldface. The sub-headings should be in title- case capitalization (first letter of each word in capital) and in bold.
15) Manuscripts for Research articles submitted to the Journal should be divided into the following sections (in this order):
•    Title page
•    Abstract
•    Keywords
•    Introduction/Background
•    Data and Methodology
•    Findings and discussion
•    Conclusions/Policy Implications
•    List of abbreviations used (if any)
•    Authors' contributions
•    Authors' information
•    Acknowledgements
•    Endnotes
•    References
16) Manuscripts not accepted for publication will not be sent back to contributors. Contributors whose papers are accepted or rejected will be informed by email only. Manuscripts will be acknowledged within one week of receipt. Hence, it is mandatory to mention a valid email address with the submitted content.
17) WE WILL NOT ACCEPT HARD COPIES OF THE PAPERS. The paper has to be submitted in MS-Word format only. There is no charge for submitting papers for blind review.
18) Authors needing assistance should contact the Associate Editors at E-mail id:
To enable the Publisher to protect the copyright of the journal, authors must send a signed copy of the Author Disclosure Form for Review (When a paper is submitted for review) and the Pre- Publication Author Disclosure Form (After a paper is accepted for publication). The Disclosure Forms have to be sent by corresponding author from their respective email ids.
1) After a paper is received, it is sent to the subject matter expert for blind review.
2) The review process takes 3 months.
3) Manuscripts are judged on the basis of the following criteria :
a) Overall contribution of the paper to the field of Social Science and management,
b) Significance and relevance of the topic to the aim and scope of the Journal.
c) Originality of the content,
d) Adequacy of the Literature Review, e) Conceptual rigor,
f) Logical and technical soundness, g) Organization of the content,
h) Writing quality,
i) Managerial/Theoretical/Policy Implications of the Research;
j) Limitations of the Study and Scope for Further Research;
k) References.
4) The Editor- in - Chief and Editorial Board reserve the right to accept or refuse an article for publication, without assigning any reasons.
5) After the review process is completed, the authors will be informed about the decision of the reviewers by email.
1) If a paper is accepted for publication, the authors will be informed by email about the acceptance.
2) An electronic version of the revised manuscript (In case of any revision) in MS- Word would be required once the paper is accepted for publication.
3) Each author of the paper will have to sign the Pre-Publication Author Disclosure Form and the scanned soft copy of this form (with signature of the author(s)) has to be submitted to the Editorial Office of WUJME
4) Copyright of published articles will rest with WUJME.
5) The final draft is subject to editorial amendments to suit the journal's requirements.
6) Each author will receive one copy of the Journal issue that carries his/her published paper.
a)    Uniform Font: Times New Roman, Font Size: 12; Black
b)    Tables Font: Times New Roman, Font Size 12;Black
c)    The table title should be at the Top of the table.
Table 1: India’s Gross Domestic Product
d)    Figure(s) Font: Times New Roman, Font Size 12.
e)    The Figure title should be at the Top of the Figure.
Figure 1: The Conversion Funnel
f)    Main Heading should be written as : RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
g)    Sub Heading should be written as : Results of Regression
h)    In tables, raw codes should not appear. E.g. Adv_1 , Govt_3 . The factors should be proper statements labeled as per the paper and need to be written rather than being presented in the form of Statistical Software codes.
i)    All Table are Figure numbers should be included in the Discussion part of the text (avoid phrases  - the below table, the above table ; instead, mention the appropriate Figure/ Table number). Please do not number the Figure/ Tables as Figure/Table 1.1, Figure/Table 1.2. Number the Tables/ Figures consecutively as Table 1/Figure 1, Table 2/Figure 2 and so on.
Title page
The title page should:
•    provide the title of the article
•    list the full names, institutional addresses and email addresses for all authors
•    indicate the corresponding author
•    Please note that abbreviations within the title should be avoided
The Abstract of the manuscript should not exceed 250 words and must not be structured into separate sections. The context and purpose of the study; how the study was performed and statistical tests used; the main findings; and potential implications should be discussed in the abstract. Please minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references in the abstract. Keywords
Three to ten keywords representing the main content of the article.
The introduction section should be written in a way that is accessible to researchers without specialist knowledge in that area and must clearly state - and, if helpful, illustrate - the background to the research and its aims. The focus should be on why this study was necessary and what it aimed to contribute to the field. The section should end with a brief statement of what is being reported in the article.
Data and Methodology
This section should include the design of the study, the setting, sampling, data sources, the type of participants or materials involved; a clear description of all interventions and comparisons, and the type of technique used for analysis.
Results and discussion
The results and discussion may be combined into a single section or presented separately. Results of statistical analysis should be clear and precise. It should not be copy paste of the statistical software output.
This should state clearly the main conclusions and policy implications of the research and give a clear explanation of their importance and relevance.
List of abbreviations
If abbreviations are used in the text they should be defined in the text at first use, and a list of abbreviations can be provided.
Authors' contributions
In order to give appropriate credit to each author of a paper, the individual contributions of authors to the manuscript should be specified in this section.
An 'author' is generally considered to be someone who has made substantive intellectual contributions to a published study. To qualify as an author one should 1) have made substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) have been involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content; 3) have given final approval of the version to be published; and 4) agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group, alone, does not justify authorship. We suggest the following kind of format (please use initials to refer to each author's contribution): Mr. AB carried out the data collection, participated in the questionnaire designing. Ms. JY carried out the data analysis. Mr. MT participated in the drafting the manuscript. Ms. ES participated in the design of the study and performed the statistical analysis. Mr. FG conceived of the study, and participated in its design and coordination and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair who provided only general support.
Please acknowledge anyone who contributed towards the article by making substantial contributions to conception, design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, or who was involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content, but who does not meet the criteria for authorship. Authors must describe the role of the funding body, if any, in design, in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; and in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. Please also acknowledge anyone who contributed materials essential for the study. If a language editor has made significant revision of the manuscript, we recommend that you acknowledge the editor by name, where possible. Authors should obtain permission to acknowledge from all those mentioned in the Acknowledgements section.
Endnotes should be designated within the text using a superscript lowercase letter and all notes (along with their corresponding letter) should be included in the Endnotes section. Please format this section in a paragraph rather than a list.

Reference styles

Kindly adopt the following reference style for the research article

For books

Surname, Initials (year), Title of Book, Publisher, Place of publication.
e.g. Harrow, R. (2005), No Place to Hide, Simon & Schuster, New York, NY.

For book chapters

Surname, Initials (year), "Chapter title", Editor's Surname, Initials, Title of Book, Publisher, Place of publication, pages.

e.g. Calabrese, F.A. (2005), "The early pathways: theory to practice – a continuum", in Stankosky, M. (Ed.), Creating the Discipline of Knowledge Management, Elsevier, New York, NY, pp. 15-20.

For journals

Surname, Initials (year), "Title of article", Journal Name, volume, number, pages.
e.g. Capizzi, M.T. and Ferguson, R. (2005), "Loyalty trends for the twenty-first century", Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 22 No. 2, pp. 72-80.

For published conference proceedings

Surname, Initials (year of publication), "Title of paper", in Surname, Initials (Ed.), Title of published proceeding which may include place and date(s) held, Publisher, Place of publication, Page numbers.

e.g. Jakkilinki, R., Georgievski, M. and Sharda, N. (2007), "Connecting destinations with an ontology-based e-tourism planner", in Information and communication technologies in tourism 2007 proceedings of the international conference in Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2007, Springer-Verlag, Vienna, pp. 12-32.

For unpublished conference proceedings

Surname, Initials (year), "Title of paper", paper presented at Name of Conference, date of conference, place of conference, available at: URL if freely available on the internet (accessed date).
e.g. Aumueller, D. (2005), "Semantic authoring and retrieval within a wiki", paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC), 29 May-1 June, Heraklion, Crete, available at: (accessed 20 February 2007).

For working papers

Surname, Initials (year), "Title of article", working paper [number if available], Institution or organization, Place of organization, date.

e.g. Moizer, P. (2003), "How published academic research can inform policy decisions: the case of mandatory rotation of audit appointments", working paper, Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds, Leeds, 28 March.

For encyclopedia entries (with no author or editor)

Title of Encyclopedia (year) "Title of entry", volume, edition, Title of Encyclopedia, Publisher, Place of publication, pages.

e.g. Encyclopaedia Britannica (1926) "Psychology of culture contact", Vol. 1, 13th ed., Encyclopaedia Britannica, London and New York, NY, pp. 765-71. (For authored entries please refer to book chapter guidelines above)

For newspaper articles (authored)

Surname, Initials (year), "Article title", Newspaper, date, pages.

e.g. Smith, A. (2008), "Money for old rope", Daily News, 21 January, pp. 1, 3-4.

For newspaper articles (non-authored)

Newspaper (year), "Article title", date, pages.

e.g. Daily News (2008), "Small change", 2 February, p. 7.

For electronic sources

If available online, the full URL should be supplied at the end of the reference, as well as a date that the resource was accessed.

e.g. Castle, B. (2005), "Introduction to web services for remote portlets", available at: (accessed 12 November 2007).
Standalone URLs, i.e. without an author or date, should be included either within parentheses within the main text, or preferably set as a note (roman numeral within square brackets within text followed by the full URL address at the end of the paper).

Author-date method: Follow the author-date method of in-text citation, e.g., (Morris, 2000).

Quotes: When directly quoting from a work, include the page number in the citation.

Citation styles
One Work by One Author: (Morris, 2000)
One Work by Multiple Authors: (Morris and Feldman, 2000)
One Work by Three or More Authors: (Morris et al., 2000)

Works with No Author: Cite the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year, for example, (‘Study Finds’, 1982).

Two or More Works by Different authors in One Citation: (Morris, 1980; Rafaeli, 1988; Sachs and Blackmore, 1998)

Two or More Works by the Same Author(s) in One Citation: (Sachs and Blackmore, 1998, 1999)

Two or More Works Published in the Same Year by the Same Author(s): (Morris, 1980a, 1980b, 1980c)

Authors with the Same Last Name: To prevent confusion, use first initials with the last names: (T.V. Rao, 2001; M.K. Rao, 1998).

Work discussed in secondary source: In the text, name the original work, and give a citation for the secondary source. For example, if Seidenberg and McClelland’s work is cited in Coltheart et al. and you did not read the original work, list the Coltheart et al. reference in the References. In the text, use the following citation: In Seidenberg and McClelland's study (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, and Haller, 1993)